Tuesday, 19 July 2011

Lexus LFA

 

The Lexus LFA is a two-seat exotic sports coupe produced by Lexus as a concept car, "halo" vehicle, racing prototype, and production model. It is the second model in the F marque line of performance vehicles from Lexus, following the IS F.


Three concept versions have been shown, each debuting at the North American International Auto Show with the LF-A designation as part of the LF Series concept line. The first LF-A concept premiered in 2005, followed in 2007 by a second LF-A with a more completely furnished interior and exterior.


The third version of the LF-A, a roadster model, premiered in 2008. The production model, trademarked LFA, was shown at the Tokyo Motor Show in October 2009.


The production Lexus LFA features a new V10 engine and a carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP) body. CFRP materials account for 65 percent of the LFA's body composition by mass.


The LFA went into production in late 2010, with a projected run of 500 vehicles at the base price of US$375,000. A circuit-tuned variant is scheduled for 2012.


2011 Lexus LFA Trim

Production

Lexus began taking orders for the LFA supercar on October 23, 2009. Buyers will be selectively chosen by Lexus in the second quarter of 2010. Production will begin in December 2010 as a 2011 model. Only 500 total LFA models will be made worldwide, with only 20 produced each month. Each car will be custom ordered to the customer's specifications, and will cost an estimated US$375,000, depending on options and customization. 

2012 Lexus LF-A - 2012 Lexus LFA Photo Car and Driver - (


Following the LFA's release at the Tokyo Motor Show, Lexus unveiled a website with a 'LFA configurator' which allowed users to select exterior and interior colors, brake caliper colors, seats, steering wheel leather, and other interior designs.


In total, there are over 30 billion possible configurations. Each LFA will be hand-built by a dedicated production team of engineers and specialists at Toyota's Motomatchi plant in Aichi, Japan.


In the North American market 150 LFAs will be initially sold through a two year lease program much like the Ferrari F50. This is to prevent owners from reselling the vehicle for a profit.


Racing driver Scott Pruett was hired to give test drives to interested buyers, demonstrating the vehicle's capabilities at Auto Club Speedway. The Lexus division of Toyota Motor USA will stop taking orders at the end of 2009, in which they will talk about a purchase plan for the lessees.


Lexus later changed their stance and allowed outright purchase, but only on the condition that they sign an agreement giving the dealer first right of refusal to buy back the LFA if the owner wants to sell it within the first two years. The dealer will have the option to buy back the used LFA for either fair market value or the original sticker price, whichever is lower. [47] In the European market buyers order their LFA through a single Lexus dealer located in Park Lane, London where it is purchased outright.


During LFA production, each vehicle will receive a plaque which is individually numbered, indicating the unit's place in the production run. Each LFA V10 engine will also bear the signature of the specialist who assembled it. With 20 units produced monthly, production of the entire LFA run will last for 25 months, from December 2010 to December 2012.

Engine

File:Toyota-Yamaha Lexus LF-A Production Prototype engine 2009 Tokyo Motor Show.jpg

 The Lexus LFA is powered by a 72-degree bank angle 4.8-liter V10 engine equipped with dual VVT-i carrying the 1LR-GUE designation with a maximum output of 412 kW (560 PS) delivered at 8,700 rpm. 

 Its maximum torque output of 480 N·m (354 lb·ft) arrives at 6,800 rpm, 90 percent of which is available from 3,700 rpm. The engine redlines at 9,000 rpm, but with a fuel cutoff set at 9,500 rpm, and is constructed using forged aluminum pistons, forged titanium connecting rods, and solid titanium valves. 

The V angle of the LFA's V-10 engine is set to 72-degrees (as opposed to the 90-degree V angle present in a Dodge Viper's V-10) to fully balance the firing force from the pistons. 

This 72-degree angle allows for even firing from the pistons without the use of a split-journal crankshaft, thus improving engine efficiency as well as lowering overall weight. 

Dry sump lubrication prevents engine oil starvation through high speed corners and lowers the engine's center of mass. Air is fed directly from beneath the hood through a visible slit passing into a dual stage variable intake manifold and then into ten individual throttle bodies before finally exiting from a dual stage titanium muffler.

File:Lexus LFA 011.JPG

The LFA's engineers selected a V10 engine over an equivalent displacement V8 engine for its ability to rev higher, and over a V12 for its lower reciprocating mass, allowing for more rapid engine response. 

Lexus claims their engine can rev from idle to its redline in 0.6 seconds and an analog tachometer needle could not accurately track the LFA's changes in engine speeds. 

This necessitated the use of a digital tachometer which can instantly display engine speed. The engine reportedly weighs less than the manufacturer's own 3.5-liter 2GR-FE V6 engine. 

Engineers attempted to make the engine sound like that of a Formula One car with high revs, while at the same time maintaining reliability and vibration control. Along with other manufacturers such as Ferrari, Toyota had produced their own F1 engines and chassis designs. 

The exhaust note has been described by Toyota engineers as the "roar of an angel", and a US television spot later used the engine sound to shatter a champagne glass via resonance frequency.

File:Lexus LFA speedometer 01.jpg

The powerplant gives the LFA a power-to-weight ratio of 5.9 lb/hp and enables it to reach a top speed of around 325 km/h (202 mph). 

Like the IS F Yamaha co-developed the engine cylinder heads. The engine exceeds Euro V emissions

The engine is installed with a front mid-engine placement. 

According to Chief Engineer Haruhiko Tanahashi a front engine layout was selected instead of a mid engine layout as it is inherently more forgiving dynamically, affording less experienced drivers a wider safety net.

Transmission

File:Lexus LFA 031.JPG

The gearbox itself is a six-speed Automated Sequential Gearbox (electrohydraulic transmission) operated with paddle-shifters developed and constructed in-house by Toyota. 

The driver can select from four settings: auto, normal, sport, and wet. 

The manufacturer quotes minimum up-shift times of 200 ms in the sport mode. According to Tanahashi a dual-clutch transmission was tested but the design team felt gear changes were overly smooth, resembling that of a traditional automatic and they preferred more abrupt and mechanically engaging shifts. 

This shifting experience was also favored despite Lexus vehicles' typical emphasis on smooth operation. The auto mode and low speed performance suffer as a result. 

A Torsen limited slip differential is also applied on the LFA, and a launch control system is available. An offset gear mounted to the crank (a world first ) sends power via a torque tube to the transmission. 

The carbon-fiber torque tube system was developed because of the rear placement of the transmission and low engine layout.

Nürburgring Edition

File:Lexus LFA Nürburgring Package at the 2011 Geneva Motor Show.jpg

On March 15, 2010, Lexus detailed the circuit-tuned variant of the LFA, plans for which were first disclosed at the LFA official press launch the previous October. The variant is officially known as the LFA Special Edition or LFA Nürburgring Edition, the latter in reference to the similar setup employed on the LFA race vehicles at the 24 Hours Nürburgring.

The model features an extra 7 kW (10 bhp) from its V10 engine, bringing the total to 419 kW (562 bhp). It also features a re-calibrated transmission with gear shifts made faster by 0.05 seconds, a front splitter, stiffer and more adjustable suspension, lightweight alloy wheels coated in track rubber, aerodynamic canards at the sides of the front bumper, and a large fixed rear wing.


The special edition is a competition-focused variant, and will be available in four exterior colors, namely glossy black, matte black, orange, and whitest white. The production totals are to be included in the 500-unit total LFA planned build cycle, and will be limited to a 50-unit run.


At a base price of US$445,000, buyers will receive training sessions at the Nordschleife, accompanied by Nürburgring chief instructors, a one-night stay at the Lindner Congress and Motorsport Hotel Nürburgring, admission to the ring°werk leisure park, a Nürburgring branded jacket, and a one-year pass to the circuit.


The Nürburgring Edition LFA was tested at the Nürburgring in June 2011. Driven by Akira Iida, the LFA set a time of 7:22.85 (video confirmed), the 10th-fastest time ever for a production vehicle. Lexus USA confirmed that this lap video was recorded as a "warm up" video for the "ADAC 24-hours" for exhibition purposes.


The LFA hit 292 km/h (181 mph) on the last straight uphill climb, which is one of the highest speeds achieved by a stock exotic supercar on that segment of the track. An official lap time will be attempted in the next few months.


Standard OEM Bridgestone Potenza RE70 performance street tires were used.


 

Thursday, 30 June 2011

Ferrari Enzo (automobile)

FERRARI ENZO 


The Enzo Ferrari is a 12 cylinder mid-engine berlinetta named after the company's founder, Enzo Ferrari. It was built in 2002 using Formula One technology, such as a carbon-fibre body, F1-style electrohydraulic shift transmission, and Carbon fibre-reinforced Silicon Carbide (C/SiC) ceramic composite disc brakes. Also used are technologies not allowed in F1 such as active aerodynamics and traction control. After a downforce of 775 kg (1,709 lb) is reached at 355.6 km/h (221 mph) the rear wing is actuated by computer to maintain that downforce.

The Enzo's V12 engine is the first of a new generation for Ferrari. It is based on the architecture of the V8 found in sister-company Maserati's Quattroporte, using the same basic architecture and 104 mm (4.1 in) bore spacing. This design will replace the former architectures seen in V12 and V8 engines used in most other contemporary Ferraris. The 2005 F430 is the second Ferrari to get a version of this new powerplant.
 
 

Production

The Enzo, named after the founder, was established to commemorate Ferrari's first formula one title of the new millennium.

The Enzo was designed by Ken Okuyama, the Japanese former Pininfarina head designer, and initially announced at the 2002 Paris Motor Show with a limited production run of 349 and at US $659,330. The company sent invitations to existing customers, specifically, those who had previously bought the F40 and F50. All 349 cars were sold in this way before production began. Later, after numerous requests, Ferrari decided to build 50 more Enzos, bringing the total to 399. Before being unveiled at the Paris Motor show, the Enzo (that was used in the show) was flown from Italy to California to be filmed in Charlie's Angels: Full Throttle. It was driven on a beach by actress Demi Moore. After filming was complete, the Enzo was flown to France to be in the Motor Show.[1] Enzos are listed as being built in 2003. In 2003 an Enzo Ferrari delivered to Houston, Texas attorney Joe D. Jamail, Jr. was involved in a driving mishap and was totally consumed by fire. Ferrari made an additional vehicle for Mr. Jamail that carried the same serial number as the destroyed car. This kept the number of Enzo Ferraris at 400.

Ferrari built one more Enzo — the 400th car — and it was auctioned by Sotheby's Maranello Auction on June 28, 2005, to benefit survivors of the 2004 Tsunami for 950,000 (US$1,274,229), almost twice its list price. This sum was presented to Pope Benedict XVI, while former Ferrari Formula One driver Michael Schumacher gave the pope a steering wheel to commemorate the donation. This wheel included a plaque which read, "The Formula 1 World Champion's steering wheel to His Holiness Benedict XVI, Catholicism's driver."

The Enzo Ferrari typically trades above $1,000,000 (£800,000) at auction.[2]
Three prototype "mules" were built, M1, M2, and M3. Each was bodied to look like a 348, even though the mules were built in 2000. The third mule was offered for auction alongside the 400th Enzo in June, 2005, bringing €195,500 (US$236,300).

 
 

Engine

The Enzo is a mid-engined car with a 43.9/56.1 front/rear weight distribution. The engine is Ferrari's F140 65° V12 with 4 valves per cylinder, dual overhead cams and variable valve timing. Bosch Motronic ME7 fuel injection is used and the engine is naturally aspirated. It displaces 5998 cc (366 in³) and produces 660 PS (485 kW; 651 hp) at 7800 rpm and 657 N·m (485 lb·ft) at 5500 rpm.[4] The redline is 8000 rpm.[5]

Chassis

The Enzo has a semi-automatic transmission (also known as the F1 gearbox) using paddles to control an automated shifting and clutch mechanism, with LED lights on the steering wheel telling the driver when to change gears. The gearbox has a shift time of just 150 milliseconds. The transmission was a first generation "clutchless" design from the late 1990s, and there have been complaints about its abrupt shifting. 

The Enzo Ferrari has 4 wheel independent suspension with push-rod actuated shock absorbers which can be adjusted from the cabin, complemented with anti-roll bars at the front and rear.

The Enzo uses 19-inch (483 mm) wheels and has 15-inch (381 mm) Brembo disc brakes. The wheels are held by a single lug nut and fitted with Bridgestone Potenza Scuderia RE050A tires


Performance

The Enzo can accelerate to 60 mph (97 km/h) in 3.14 seconds[9] and can reach 100 mph (160 km/h) in 6.6 seconds.[4] The ¼ mile (~400 m) time is 11.0 at 136 mph (219 km/h) and the top speed has been recorded to be as high as 350 kilometres per hour (220 mph).[10] It is rated at 12 miles per US gallon (20 L/100 km; 14 mpg-imp) in the city and 18 miles per US gallon (13 L/100 km; 22 mpg-imp) on the highway.

Despite the Enzo's extraordinary performance and price, the Ferrari 430 Scuderia (an improved version of Ferrari's standard F430 production car) is capable of lapping the Ferrari test track just as quickly as the Enzo.

Evo magazine tested the Enzo on the famed Nordschleife Circuit and ran a 7:25.21 lap time. The Enzo in the test had a broken electronic damper.


 Ferrari Enzo 17737 Wallpaper



Tuesday, 28 June 2011

Lamborghini LP 550-2 Valentino Balboni


Let's get straight to the point: the LP550-2 is a car designed with very specific tastes in mind. Valentino Balboni, the Lamborghini test driver after whom the LP550-2 has been named, has been in the supercar test-driving business for over 40 years, which is actually longer than I have been alive. The notches on the calendar mean that he is amongst the most capable and sensitive drivers in the world. I, on the other hand, am not. Which means that when you make a car to the specific tastes of Valentino Balboni, you cook up a big bubbling cauldron of Marmite.  

The recipe looks like a good one. This Gallardo comes as standard with a six-speed manual 'box (you can option an e-Gear version, but that's kind of straying from the point if this is supposed to be ‘his' spec), more feelsome steel discs instead of the (still optional) carbon ceramics, white and gold stripes, less weight (120kg less, to be precise) and, most tellingly, two-wheel drive. And of course, it's this last bit upon which most people have seized, crowing loudly about the Balboni being a ‘proper' Lambo because it's reverted to rear-wheel-drive. Right then.

2010 Lamborghini Gallardo Picture

 Ever since the Diablo died, there hasn't been a Lambo that transmits its prodigious power through the rear wheels only. Since horsepower went north of 500 ponies, Lambo decided the best way of nearly containing it was to throw it through a rear-biased 4x4 system. It works - Lambos are among the friendliest supercars, because they have lots of natural grip under acceleration and don't try to slice off your face if you do anything stupid but natural, like lift when you find yourself barreling into a corner too fast.

 The LP550-2 is a totally different experience. Drive the Balboni and you notice as soon as you move the steering wheel more than a quarter of an inch. The steering feels lighter, more communicative, instantly more textured than the four-wheel drive car. You realise that the 4x4 car is operating through a thin film of mechanical interference necessitated by driveshafts and their subsequent torque. The uncorrupted steering is a joy. The car feels darty, lively, more connected than any Gallardo ever made. More awake.

Lamborghini Gallardo LP550-2 Valentino Balboni

Go faster and you start getting messages from fingertips and buttocks that this is a car that really wants to play. There's a great deal more reaction readily available for smaller steering inputs. The car feels like most of the 120kg weight loss is from the front wheels themselves, rather than the 30 or 40kg that deleting the front diff actually achieves. It makes you smile insanely hard. Right up until you push just that little bit further and the car gives you a little warning wiggle and the smile falters. The traction control has been altered to allow more slip, but that isn't the reason the Balboni suddenly isn't really your friend.  

 Turn in and there's still prodigious grip, a lovely adjustable attitude that you remember from the LP560-4. But when you lift mid-corner, or try a bit too hard, the Balboni gets nervous, and much less forgiving than the standard car. The dampers and springs, brakes, ESP and even the tyres have been tweaked to make the car feel exactly how Balboni wants it. That means it lives closer to the edge of reason, bites harder, more suddenly and is less helpful once 542bhp has got the better of those rear tyres. Of course, if you're Valentino Balboni, this is a good thing, allowing you a greater proportion of playtime-per-mile. If you're average, it makes you nervous and, in my case, quite a lot slower.

2009 Lamborghini Gallardo LP 550-2 Valentino Balboni 6

It probably doesn't help that the Gallardo I'm driving has some sort of ‘sports pack' suspension that Balboni has already decided needs softening off to give a decent turn-in without the current spine-cracking ride quality. It certainly exacerbates the nervousness along these Italian backroads, only really becoming acceptable at speeds high enough to make you wince at the mere thought of them. It's all a bit macho really and pretty much as you'd expect. Valentino Balboni has this car absolutely pegged - as he demonstrates in no uncertain fashion on a passenger ride right up there with the most amusing things I've ever done, ever, but you have to be confident of riding that particular knife edge.

 Of course, with a little less mass to propel and the same basic mechanical bits, the rest of the experience is as brilliant as ever. The 5.2-litre V10 howls behind you, playing angry pop through a set of exhaust valves, daring you to try to open up the butterflies and hear the metallic wail just once more. The gearbox is a deliberate joy, the open gate and musical ‘clackety, clack - ting!' of a perfect second-to-third gearchange one of the most satisfying things ever to grace your palm. 

2010 Lamborghini Gallardo LP550-2 Valentino Balboni
 
 The stripes appear on every car, a broad white central strip edged on one side with gold, a theme carried through the seats and dash leather. There for no other reason than Balboni likes them because they used to appear on many old racing cars. On the left-hand window is Balboni's signature and the wheels are multi-spoked, 19in tall and dark grey. And that's pretty much it. No wings, or funny exhausts, or tinselly tat - a pleasant change of pace.

But ultimately, there's a disconnect between what the LP550-2 Balboni can provide for the average driver and actually having to be Valentino Balboni to adequately access the extra fun factor. Some buyers will undoubtedly play car park bullshit and say all the right things, while being capable of mining just the smallest seam of the LP550-2's ability, and the percentage of people actually using the thing the way it should be used will be very small. 

Still, if it were a lighter, cheaper Lamborghini then I'd be more than happy to recommend it as a perfect heart-pumper for the more committed pilot. But, and here's the killer point, it costs £18k more than a standard LP560-4 Coupe. So you're paying an exclusivity tax on a car that will be marginally slower than the standard car in the hands of most of us. It's a very cool thing, this special Lamborghini, made cooler by the name that it bears. But you'll be just fine with a standard Gallardo, and save £18k in the process.

Tom Ford

http://windows7themes.net/wp-content/gallery/lamborghini-gallardo-lp-550-2-valentino-balboni-wallpaper/lamborghini%20gallardo%20lp%20550-2%20valentino%20balboni-wallpaper8.jpg


Wednesday, 22 June 2011

Nissan S30

 

The Nissan S30 (sold in Japan as the Nissan Fairlady Z and in other markets as the Datsun 240Z, then later as the 260Z and 280Z) was the first generation of Z GT 2 seat coupe, and later (beginning in the 1974 model year) also 2+2 hatchbacks produced by Nissan Motors, Ltd. of Japan from 1970 to 1978. It was designed by a team led by Mr. Yoshihiko Matsuo, the head of Nissan's Sports Car Styling Studio. HLS30 was the designation of the left-hand drive model and HS30 for the right-hand drive model.


All variants had a 4-wheel independent suspension consisted of MacPherson struts in front (borrowed from the Nissan Laurel C30) and Chapman struts in back. Front disc brakes and rear drums were standard.

The 240Z and 260Z used twin, variable venturi Hitachi one-barrel side-draft SU-like carburetors. The carburetors were changed beginning with model year 1973 to comply with emissions regulations, but the earlier carburetors were far superior for performance. Fuel injection (L-Jetronic electronic fuel injection, designed by Bosch) was added for the 280Z in 1975 for the US. This was primarily in order to cope with the difficulty faced in getting enough power using carburetors while still meeting US emissions regulations.

Due to its relatively low price compared to other foreign sports cars of the time (Jaguar, BMW, Porsche, etc.), it became popular in the United States and was a major success for the Nissan Motor Corporation, which at the time sold cars in North America under the name Datsun. The 240Z also broadened the image of Japanese car-makers beyond their econobox success.

Continuing through the 1975-1978 model years, other non-USA markets still received the 260Z coupe and the 260Z 2+2 hatchback — the two-door, four-seat model. The S30 240Z is essentially unrelated to the later 240SX, which is sold as the Silvia in Japan, although initial advertising for the 240SX mentioned the S30.


240Z

Wangan Midnight Nissan Fairlady 240Z S30 Image


The 1970 240Z was introduced to the American market by Yutaka Katayama, president of Nissan Motors USA operations, widely known as Mr. K. The 1970 through the mid-1971 model year 240Z was referred to as the Series I. These early cars had many subtle but notable features differing from later cars. The most easily visible difference is that these early cars had a chrome "240Z" badge on the sail pillar, and two horizontal vents in the rear hatch below the glass molding providing flow through ventilation. In mid-1971, for the Series II 240Z cars, the sail pillar emblems were restyled with just the letter "Z" placed in a circular vented emblem, and the vents were eliminated from the hatch panel of the car. Design changes for the U.S. model 240Z occurred throughout production, including interior modifications for the 1972 model year, and a change in the location of the bumper over-riders, as well as the addition of some emission control devices and the adoption of a new style of emissions reducing (and performance compromising) carburetors for the 1973 model year.[1]

The 1970 models were introduced in October 1969, received the L24 2.4 liter engine and a 4-speed manual. A less common 3-speed automatic transmission was optional from 1971 on, and had a "Nissan Full Automatic" badge.

In 2004, Sports Car International named this car number two on the list of Top Sports Cars of the 1970s. One of the most appealing Japanese cars ever produced, it nevertheless disappeared almost entirely from American roads within two decades, presumably because like most Japanese cars of the time it had insurmountable rust issues.

Specifications

  • Engine: 2,393 cc (146.0 cu in) L24 I-6, cast-iron block, alloy head, seven-bearing crankshaft, single overhead cam, 9.0:1 compression; Maximum recommended engine speed 7000 rpm.
    • Bore: 83.0 mm (3.27 in)
    • Stroke: 73.7 mm (2.90 in)
  • Fuel system: Mechanical fuel pump, twin Hitachi HJG 46W 1.75 in (44 mm) SU-type carburetors
  • Power: 151 hp (113 kW) at 5600 rpm (SAE gross)
  • Torque: 146 lbf·ft (198 N·m) at 4400 rpm (SAE gross)
  • Transmission: Four-speed manual, five-speed manual, or three-speed automatic (after September 1970)
  • Final drive ratios:
  • Brakes:
    • Front: 10.7 in (270 mm) discs
    • Rear: 9.0 in (230 mm) x 1.6 in (41 mm) drums
  • Suspension:
  • Steering: Rack and pinion, 2.7 turns lock to lock
  • Wheels: 4.5J-14 steel wheels with 175 SR 14 tires
  • Wheelbase: 90.7 in (2,300 mm)
  • Length: 162.8 in (4,140 mm)
  • Width: 64.1 in (1,630 mm)
  • Dry weight: 2,355 lb (1,068 kg)
  • Top speed: 125 mph (201 km/h)
  • 0 to 60 mph (97 km/h): 8.0 s
  • Typical fuel consumption: 21 mpg-US (11 L/100 km; 25 mpg-imp)

260Z

Datsun 260Z, 1977

 This model was sold in the United States for the 1974 model year only, but was available in other countries until 1978. The engine was enlarged over that of the 240Z with a longer stroke to 2.6 L. In the U.S., federal emissions regulations forced a reduction in ignition timing and compression ratio, resulting in a lower power output (140 hp) for the 260Z's despite the additional displacement, whereas in other countries the power output increased to 165 bhp (123 kW; 167 PS). A 3-speed automatic transmission was an option, and the 4-speed manual remained standard.

1974 brought for the first time to the S30 line a new 2/2 (2+2) seating option, which offered room for 4 passengers and an extra 11.9 in (302 mm) of wheelbase. These cars have a notably different roofline from the 2 seat coupes, incorporating larger opening quarter panel windows.

Some regard the 260Z as the least desirable of the S30 models, because of the reduced performance offered in comparison to the earlier 240Z, and also in comparison to the later 280Z with its fuel injected 2.8 liter motor.

The 260Z claimed a few updates or improvements or over the 240Z. The climate controls were more sensibly laid out and easier to work, and those cars with air conditioning now had the A/C system integrated into the main climate control panel. There was also additional stiffness in the chassis due to a redesign of the chassis rails which were larger and extended further back than previous models. The 260Z debuted a redesigned dashboard and console, as well as new seat trim, and door panels for the interior. The rear tail lights were updated, moving the reverse lights from the main tail light housing to the back panel. Early 1974 U.S. 260Z models had bumpers that resembled those of the earlier 240Z, though increased slightly in size, pushed away from the body somewhat, and wearing black rubber bumper guards rather that the previous chrome bumper guards with rubber strips. These early cars still had the front turn signals located below the bumpers. Late 1974 U.S. 260Z models (often referred to as 1974.5 models) carried the heavier bumpers that would remain on the 1975-76 model years of the 280Z. These late cars had the front turn signals relocated to the outer edges of the front grill, above the bumper.

Nissan 240Z (Fairlady Z), 1969

Specifications
  • Engine: 2.6 L (160 cu in) L26 I6, cast-iron block, alloy head, seven-bearing crankshaft, single overhead camshaft
    • Displacement: 156.6 cu in (2565 cc)
    • Bore: 83.0 mm (3.27 in)
    • Stroke: 79.0 mm (3.11 in)
    • Compression Ratio: 8.3:1 (93 oct)
  • Fuel System: Mechanical fuel pump, twin Hitachi HMB 46 W 1.75 in (44 mm) SU-type carburetors
  • Power: 162 hp (121 kW) at 5600 rpm
  • Torque: 157 ft·lbf (213 N·m) at 4400 rpm
  • Transmission: Four-speed manual or three-speed automatic
  • Brakes:
    • Front: 10.7 in (270 mm) discs front
    • Rear: 9.0 in (230 mm) X 1.6 in (41 mm) drums rear, servo assisted
  • Suspension:
    • Front: Independent with MacPherson struts, lower wishbones, coil springs, telescopic dampers, anti-roll bar
    • Rear: Independent with Chapman struts, lower wishbones, coil springs, telescopic dampers
  • Steering: Rack and Pinion, 2.7 turns lock to lock
  • Wheels/ Tires: 4.5J-14 steel wheels with 175 SR 14 tyres
  • Top Speed: 127 mph (204 km/h)
  • 0 to 60 mph (97 km/h): 8.0 sec
  • Fuel consumption: 20 mpg-US (12 L/100 km; 24 mpg-imp) to 28 mpg-US (8.4 L/100 km; 34 mpg-imp)
  • Engine oil (sump): 9.0 Imp pints (5.1 liters/10.7 US pints)

280Z

Datsun 280ZX, 1979

In a further effort to keep the S30 models sporting in the face of increasingly stringent U.S. emission and safety requirements, Nissan Motors released the Datsun 280Z model for the U.S. market in the 1975 model year. Both the 2 seat coupe and 2/2 (2+2) hatchback models remained available throughout the 1975-78 model year run of the 280Z.

For the 280Z, engine size was again increased, this time to 2.8 L, by enlarging the bore of the L26 engine to create the L28, and a reliable Bosch L-Jetronic fuel injection system was added.

1975 and 1976 models continued to be fitted with the Federally required 5mph crash test bumpers that were introduced for the mid-1974 model year of the 260z. These bumpers were smooth surfaced, and blended into smooth black rubber extensions as they met the body of the car. 1977 and 1978 models received bumpers with recessed channels added to the faces of the bumpers themselves, that blended into corrugated or accordion style black rubber extension trim. Also new for the 1977 model year, 280Zs no longer received the full size spare tire, and instead had a "space saver" spare and a larger fuel tank. This resulted in a raised rear deck area made of fiberboard, reducing cargo space. In 1977-78 an optional 5-speed manual transmission was available along side the 4-speed manual, and the 3-speed automatic options, which included a "5-speed" emblem on the left bottom edge of the rear hatch. 1977 also saw an update from the charcoal painted hubcap style (with a chrome Z floating in the amber center emblems) to a hubcap that resembled an alloy wheel, bearing a center cap with a chrome Z floating in a black circle.

In 1977 and 1978 respectively, Datsun offered two special edition models. The "Zap" edition was offered in 1977 as a "Special Decor Package". Zap cars were finished in Sunshine Yellow paint, and sported black stripes down the center and sides, with yellow, red, and orange chevrons at the front ends of the stripes. An estimated 1,000 "Zap Z" cars were offered in 1977. The "Zap Z" model was also used as the pace car in the 1977 Long Beach Gran Prix. The Black Pearl edition (produced in 1978) came with Black Pearlescent paint and a "Special Appearance Package" (SAP), which consisted of dual racing mirrors, rear window louvers, and a unique red and silver stripe. It is estimated that between 750-1,500 of these cars were produced.

The S30 series Z car was replaced in 1979 by the S130 Nissan Fairlady 280ZX / Datsun 280ZX.

 Owner modifications

The most common conversion is to replace the 2.4 or 2.6 liter engine with the L28 2.8 liter engine from the later model 280Z/280ZX. Turbo 280ZX L28s can be retrofitted into earlier cars using the later wiring harness and associated parts.

The S30s are popular for Skyline RB25DET/RB26DETT swaps, with numerous kits available.
The S30 has also proven to be a popular and affordable basis for V8 and other engine conversions, usually a Chevrolet Small-Block engine or Ford. Several vendors make kits and informational books to allow the conversion to be done as a nearly bolt-in process.

The 280Z, although relatively heavy and smog-controlled in stock form due to government regulations, is easily modified. For instance, simply removing the heavy front bumper and adding a front spoiler corrects the otherwise jittery high-speed handling of the stock version.

Replacement of stock bumpers with those from the 240z, along with removal of spare tire, jack, and air conditioning system can lighten a 280z by nearly 200 lbs. Some of the weight gain of a 280z is actually a benefit over the 240z such as a much stronger Nissan R200 rear differential replacing the R180 in the 240z, and the addition of a rear sway bar. Further, a great variety of aftermarket parts are available to, in effect, bring the 280Z back in line with the ethic of the early Z-cars, such as free-flowing exhaust/header kits and the installation of a 280ZX turbo turbocharger.


Super Clean S30 Nisan Fairlady (240Z) 

Super Clean S30 Nisan Fairlady (240Z) 

 


Bmw 2002 turbo

 
The short-lived BMW 2002 Turbo was a extroverted, turbocharged hooligan of a car. It was introduced in 1972 to inject some glamour into the ageing BMW sedan it was derived from. The standard BMW 2002 was a handsome, yet unremarkable two door coupe. The 2002 Turbo was a different story.

 

Based off the 2002 Tii body platform, the BMW 2002 Turbo was powered by a turbocharged 2.0 litre engine which produced 170 hp (125 kW) @ 5,800 rpm, and 177 ft/lbs (240 Nm) of torque. The 5-speed manual ZF gearbox allowed the BMW 2002 Turbo to reach a respectable 130 mph. One of the drawbacks to the engine was its sharp turbo cut in from 4,500 rpm. If the driver was caught out it could make the car a bit of a handful.

BMW 2002 turbo - Front Angle, 1973, 1280x960, 1 of 1

The styling of the BMW 2002 Turbo screamed performance. Early cars even advertised their turbocharged performance with prominent reversed 'Turbo' lettering on the front bumper. The wheel arches of the BMW 2002 Turbo were widened with tacked on, race-like extensions. At the front the chrome bumper of the standard car was replaced with a deep chin spoiler. 

BMW 2002 Turbo


Inside the BMW 2002 Turbo were a pair of adjustable bucket seats, a turbo boost gauge and a three spoke sport steering wheel.

BMW 2002 Turbo (1974) Détail Intérieur

 
The BMW 2002 Turbo's production run lasted for only 10 months. In that time 1,672 cars had been manufactured. Today the 2002 Turbo is highly sought after by collectors.



Year (of specifications) 1972 - 1973
Engine 2.0 litre, inline four cylinder, turbo
Transmission 5 speed manual RWD
Max speed 130 mph
0-60 mph -
Horsepower 170 bhp @ 5,800 rpm
weight -



Tuesday, 21 June 2011

Ford GT

Ford GT 

The Ford GT is a mid-engine two-seater sports car. Ford Motor Company produced the Ford GT for the 2005 to 2006 model years. The designers drew inspiration from Ford's classic GT40 race cars of the 1960s.

Development

The Ford GT began as a concept car designed in anticipation of the automaker's centennial year and as part of its drive to showcase and revive its "heritage" names such as Mustang and Thunderbird. At the 1995 Detroit Auto Show, the Ford GT90 concept was shown. At the 2002 auto show, Ford unveiled a new GT40 Concept car. Camilo Pardo, the head of Ford's "Living Legends" studio, is credited as the chief designer of the GT and worked under the guidance of J Mays.

The GT is similar in outward appearance to the original Ford GT40 cars, but bigger, wider, and 3 in (76 mm) taller than the original 40 in (100 cm); as a result, a potential name for the car was the GT43. Although the cars are visually related, structurally, there is no similarity between the modern GT and the 1960s GT40 that inspired it. Three production prototype cars were shown in 2003 as part of Ford's centenary, and delivery of the production Ford GT began in the fall of 2004.

A British company, Safir Engineering, who built continuation GT40s in the 1980s, owned the "GT40" trademark at that time. When they completed production, they sold the excess parts, tooling, design, and trademark to a small Ohio company called Safir GT40 Spares. This company licensed the use of the "GT40" trademark to Ford for the initial 2002 show car. When Ford decided to make the production vehicle, negotiations between the two firms failed. The production


 




Production and sales

The GT was produced in model years 2005 and 2006, with the first customers taking delivery in August 2004. The GT began assembly at Mayflower Vehicle Systems in Norwalk, Ohio and was painted by Saleen in their Saleen Special Vehicles facility in Troy, Michigan. The GT is powered by an engine built at Ford's Romeo Engine Plant in Romeo, Michigan. Installation of the engine and manual transmission along with interior finishing was handled in the SVT building at Ford's Wixom, Michigan plant.
Of the 4,500 GTs originally planned, approximately 100 were to be exported to Europe, starting in late 2005. An additional 200 were destined for sale in Canada. Production ended in 2006 without reaching the planned lot. Approximately 550 were built in 2004, nearly 1,900 in 2005, and just over 1,600 in 2006, for a grand total of 4,038. The final 11 car bodies manufactured by Mayflower Vehicle Systems were disassembled, and the frames and body panels were sold as service parts.

As with many exotic vehicles, when the Ford GT was first released, the demand outpaced supply, and the cars initially sold for premium prices. The first private sale of Ford's new mid-engine sports car was completed on August 4, 2004, when former Microsoft executive Jon Shirley took delivery of his Midnight Blue 2005 Ford GT.[2] Shirley earned the right to purchase the first production Ford GT (chassis #10) at a charity auction at the Pebble Beach Concours d'Elegance Auction after bidding over $557,000.[3]

A few other early cars sold for as much as a US$100,000 premium over the suggested retail price of $139,995 (Ford increased the MSRP to $149,995 on July 1, 2005).[4] Optional equipment available included a McIntosh sound system, racing stripes, and forged alloy wheels adding an additional $13,500 to the MSRP.[5]

The production run of 4,038 GTs ended the 2006 model year on September 21, 2006, short of the originally planned 4,500.[6] The Wixom Assembly Plant has stopped production of all models as of May 31, 2007.[7] Sales of the GT continued into 2007, from cars held in storage and in dealer inventories. During the GT's lifetime, the car was featured on the cover of the video game Gran Turismo 4.



Performance and engineering

The Ford GT features many new and unique technologies, including superplastic-formed aluminum body panels, roll-bonded floor panels, a friction stir welded center tunnel, a "ship-in-a-bottle" gas tank, a capless fuel filler system, one-piece door panels, and an aluminum engine cover with a one-piece carbon-fiber inner panel.
Brakes are four-piston aluminum Brembo calipers with cross-drilled and vented rotors at all four corners. When the rear canopy is opened, the rear suspension components and engine are visible.

The mid-mounted 5.4 L Modular V8 engine is all-aluminum with a Lysholm twin screw-type supercharger. It features a forged rotating assembly housed in an aluminum block designed specifically for the GT program. A dry sump oiling system is employed, allowing the engine to sit low in the car's frame. The DOHC 4-valve heads are a revision of the 2000 Ford Mustang SVT Cobra R cylinder heads (with slightly increased wall casting thickness in the exhaust port). The camshafts have unique specifications, with more lift and duration than those found in the Shelby GT500 or 2003–2004 Ford Mustang SVT Cobra. Power output is 550 hp (410 kW; 558 PS) at 6500 rpm and generates 500 ft·lbf (678 N·m) of torque at 3750 rpm.[8] A Ricardo six-speed manual transmission is fitted featuring a helical limited-slip differential.

Ford GT standing mile record Video: Performance Power Racing Ford GT Breaks Standing Mile World Record 252 MPH


 

Monday, 20 June 2011

Mazda RX-7

 


The Mazda RX-7 is a sports car by the Japanese automaker Mazda. It was produced from 1978 to 2002. The original RX-7 featured a 1146 cc twin-rotor Wankel rotary engine and a sporty front-midship, rear-wheel drive layout. The RX-7 was a direct replacement for the RX-3 (both were sold in Japan as the Savanna) and subsequently replaced all other Mazda rotary cars with the exception of the Cosmo.

The original RX-7 was a sports car. The compact and lightweight Wankel engine (rotary engine) is situated slightly behind the front axle, a configuration marketed by Mazda as "front mid-engine". It was offered as a two-seat coupé, with optional "occasional" rear seats in Japan, Australia, the United States, and other parts of the world. These rear seats were initially marketed as a dealer-installed option for the North American markets.
The RX-7 made Car and Driver magazine's Ten Best list five times. In total, 811,634 RX-7s were produced.



First generation (SA/FB)

Series 1 (1979–1980) is commonly referred to as the "SA22C" from the first alphanumerics of the vehicle identification number. This series of RX-7 had exposed steel bumpers and a high-mounted indentation-located license plate, called by Werner Buhrer of Road & Track magazine a "Baroque depression."

In 1980 Mazda released 3000 special models known as the LS (Leather Sport). This package added an LS badge, full leather upholstery, sunroof, and gold-colored alloys. This model was only available in three different colors Aura White (1250 made), Brilliant Black (1250 made) and Solar Gold (500 made).

The Series 2 (1981–1983) had integrated plastic-covered bumpers, wide black rubber body side moldings, wraparound taillights and updated engine control components. The GSL package provided optional 4-wheel disc brakes, front ventilated (Australian model) and clutch-type rear limited slip differential (LSD). Known as the "FB" in North America after the US Department of Transportation mandated 17 digit Vehicle Identification Number changeover. Elsewhere in the world, the 1981-1985 RX-7 retained the 'SA22C' VIN prefix. As a result, enthusiasts outside North America never picked up the "FB" nickname. The license-plate surround looks much like Buhrer's "Styling Impressions.

1979 Mazda RX7 GS


The Series 3 (1984–1985) featured an updated lower front fascia. North American models received a different instrument cluster (the NA S3 RX-7 is the only rotary-engined car to not have a centrally mounted tachometer). GSL package was continued into this series, but Mazda introduced the GSL-SE sub-model. The GSL-SE had a fuel injected 1.3 L 13B RE-EGI engine producing 135 hp (101 kW) and 135 lb·ft (183 N·m). GSL-SEs had much the same options as the GSL (clutch-type rear LSD and rear disc brakes), but the brake rotors were larger, allowing Mazda to use the more common lug nuts (versus bolts), and a new bolt pattern of 4x114.3 (4x4.5"). Also, they had upgraded suspension with stiffer springs and shocks. The external oil cooler was reintroduced, after being dropped in the 1983 model-year for the controversial "beehive" water-oil heat exchanger.
The 1984 RX-7 GSL has an estimated 29 highway miles per gallon (8.11 litres per 100 km) /19 estimated city miles per gallon (12.37 l/100 km). According to Mazda, its rotary engine, licensed by NSU-Wankel allowed the RX-7 GSL to accelerate from 0 to 50 (80 km/h) in 6.3 seconds. Kelley Blue Book, in its January–February 1984 issue, noted that a 1981 RX-7 GSL retained 93.4% of its original sticker price.

1985 - Mazda released in Australia the RX7 Finale - this was the last of the series and brought out in limited numbers. The Finale featured power options and a brass plaque mentioning the number the car was as well as "Last of a legend" on the plaque. The finale had special stickers and a blacked out section between the window & rear hatch.

The handling and acceleration of the car were noted to be of a high caliber for its day. This generation RX-7 had "live axle" 4-link rear suspension with Watt's linkage, a 50/50 weight ratio, and weighed under 2500 lb (1100 kg). It was the lightest generation of RX-7 ever produced. 12A-powered models accelerated from 0–60 mph in 9.2 s, and turned 0.779g (7.64 m/s²) laterally on a skidpad. The 12A engine produced 100 hp (75 kW) at 6000 rpm, allowing the car to reach speeds of over 120 miles per hour (190 km/h). Because of the smoothness inherent in the Wankel rotary engine, little vibration or harshness was experienced at high rpm, so a buzzer was fitted to the tachometer to warn the driver when the 7000 rpm redline was approaching 

The 12A engine has a long thin shaped combustion chamber, having a large surface area in relation to its volume. Therefore, combustion is cool, giving few oxides of nitrogen. However, the combustion is also incomplete, so there are large amounts of partly burned hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide. The exhaust is hot enough for combustion of these to continue into the exhaust. An engine driven pump supplies air into the exhaust to complete the burn of these chemicals. This is done in the "thermal reactor" chamber where the exhaust manifold would normally be on a conventional engine. Under certain conditions the pump injects air into the thermal reactor and at other times air is pumped through injectors into the exhaust ports. This fresh air is needed for more efficient and cleaner burning of the air/fuel mixture.

Options and models varied from country to country. The gauge layout and interior styling in the Series 3 was only changed for North American versions. Additionally, North America was the only market to have offered the first generation RX-7 with the fuel injected 13B, model GSL-SE. A turbocharged (but non-intercooled) 12A engine was available for the top-end model of Series 3 in Japan.

Sales were strong, with a total of 474,565 first generation cars produced; 377,878 were sold in the United States alone. In 2004, Sports Car International named this car #7 on its list of Top Sports Cars of the 1970s. In 1983, the RX-7 would appear on Car and Driver magazine's Ten Best list for the first time in 20 years


Second generation (FC)

Mazda Rx7 Wallpaper - Free Cars Wallpapers - Mazda - RX7

The Series 4 (1986–1988) was available with a naturally aspirated, fuel-injected 13B-VDEI producing 146 hp (108 kW). An optional turbocharged model, known as the Turbo II in the American market, had 182 hp / 185 ps (135 kW). The Series 5 (1989–1992) featured updated styling and better engine management, as well as lighter rotors and a higher compression ratio, 9.7:1 for the naturally aspirated model, and 9.0:1 for the turbo model. The naturally aspirated Series 5 FC made 160 hp (119 kW), while the Series 5 Turbo made 200 hp / 205 ps (147 kW).

The second generation RX-7 ("FC", VIN begins JM1FC3 or JMZFC1), still known as the Savanna RX-7 in Japan, featured a complete restyling reminiscent of the Porsche 944 or Porsche 924. Mazda's stylists, led by Chief Project Engineer Akio Uchiyama, focused on the Porsche 944 for their inspiration in designing the FC because the new car was being styled primarily for the American market, where the majority of first generation RX-7's had been sold. This strategy was chosen after Uchiyama and others on the design team spent time in the United States studying owners of earlier RX-7's and other sports cars popular in the American market. The Porsche 944 was selling particularly well at the time and provided clues as to what sports-car enthusiasts might find compelling in future RX-7 styling and equipment. While the SA22/FB was a purer sports car, the FC tended toward the softer sport-tourer trends of its day. Handling was much improved, with less of the oversteer tendencies of the FB. The rear end design was vastly improved from the FB's live rear axle to a more modern, Independent Rear Suspension (rear axle). Steering was more precise, with rack and pinion steering replacing the old recirculating ball steering of the FB. Disc brakes also became standard, with some models (S4: GXL, GTU, Turbo II, Convertible; S5: GXL, GTUs, Turbo, Convertible) offering four-piston front brakes. The rear seats were optional in some models of the FC RX-7, but are not commonly found in the American Market. Mazda also introduced Dynamic Tracking Suspension System (DTSS) in the 2nd generation RX-7. The revised independent rear suspension incorporated special toe control hubs which were capable of introducing a limited degree of passive rear steering under cornering loads. The DTSS worked by allowing a slight amount of toe-out under normal driving conditions but induced slight toe-in under heavier cornering loads at around 0.5 G's or more; toe-out in the rear allows for a more responsive rotation of the rear, but toe-in allowed for a more stable rear under heavier cornering. Mazda also introduced Auto Adjusting Suspension (AAS) in the 2nd generation RX-7. The system changed damping characteristics according to the road and driving conditions. The system compensated for camber changes and provided anti-dive and anti-squat effects. The Turbo 2 uses a turbo charger with a twin scroll design. Engineered to cancel the turbo lag at low engine speeds is the smaller primary chamber. At higher revolutions the secondary chamber is opened pumping out 33% more power than the naturally aspirated counterpart. The Turbo 2 also has an air-to-air intercooler that has its own intake on the hood.

Though about 80 lb (36 kg) heavier and more isolated than its predecessor, the FC continued to win accolades from the press. The FC RX-7 was Motor Trend's Import Car of the Year for 1986, and the Turbo II was on Car and Driver magazine's Ten Best list for a second time in 1987.

In the Japanese market, only the turbo engine was available; the naturally-aspirated version was allowed only as an export. This can be attributed to insurance companies penalizing turbo cars (thus restricting potential sales). This emphasis on containing horsepower and placating insurance companies to make RX-7's more affordable seems ironic in retrospect. Shortly after the discontinuance of the second generation RX-7's in 1992, an outright horsepower "arms race" broke out between sports car manufacturers, with higher and higher levels of power required to meet buyer demands. This rising horsepower phenomena arose from the US CAFE standards remaining stable while engine technologies marched forward rapidly.

Mazda sold 86,000 RX-7's in the US alone in 1986, its first model year, with sales peaking in 1988.

Australian Motors Mazda released a limited run of 250 'Sports' model Series 4 RX-7's; each with no power steering, power windows or rear wiper as an attempt to reduce the weight of the car. In Japan, there was a special limited release of the FC called Infini with only 600 made for each year. Some special noted features for all Infini series are: infini logo on the back, upgraded suspension, upgraded ECU, higher horsepower, lightened weight, 15" BBS aluminum alloy wheels, Infini logo steering wheel, aero bumper kits, bronze colored window glass, floor bar on the passenger side, aluminum bonnet with scoop, flare and holder. The car was thought as the pinnacle of the RX-7 series (until the FD came out). The Infini IV came with other special items such as black bucket seats, 16" BBS wheels, Knee pads, and all the other items mentioned before. There are differing years for the Infini, which noted the series. Series I was introduced in 1987, Series II was introduced in 1988, Series III was introduced in 1990, and Series IV was introduced in 1991. Series I and II came in White or Black, Series III came in Forest Green only, and Series IV came in Forest Green or Noble Green. There are only minor differences between the series, the biggest change which was from the Series II being an S4 (1986–1988) and the Series III and IV being an S5 (1989–1991).


Third generation (FD)

Mazda Rx 7. Mazda RX-7

The third generation of the RX-7, FD (with FD3S for the JDM and JM1FD for the USA VIN), featured an updated body design. The 13B-REW was the first-ever mass-produced sequential twin-turbocharger system to export from Japan, boosting power to 255 PS (188 kW; 252 hp) in 1993 and finally 280 PS (206 kW; 276 hp) by the time production ended in Japan in 2002.
  • Series 6 (1992–1995) was exported throughout the world and had the highest sales. In Japan, Mazda sold the RX-7 through its Efini brand as the Efini RX-7. Models in Japan included the Type R, the top-of-the-range Type RZ, the Type RB, the A-spec and the Touring X, which only came with a 4-speed automatic reducing power to 255 PS (188 kW; 252 hp), but the others ran on the standard 265 PS (195 kW; 261 hp) engine with a 5-speed manual gearbox. Only the 1993–1995 model years were sold in the U.S. and Canada. Series 6 came with 255 PS (188 kW; 252 hp) and 294 N·m (217 ft·lbf). In the UK only 124 examples of this model were sold through the official Mazda network, Only one spec. was available and this included twin oil-coolers, electric sunroof, cruise control and the rear storage bins in place of the back seats.
  • In North America, three models were offered; the "base", the touring, and the R models. The touring FD had a sunroof, leather seats, and a complex Bose Acoustic Wave system. The R (R1 in 1993 and R2 in 1994–95) models featured stiffer suspensions, an aerodynamics package, suede seats, and Z-rated tires.
  • There is also a "Touring Model" which includes a sun roof, and Bose stereo system. Compared to the R1 and R2 which both don't have a moon roof, and they have an extra front oil cooler in the front bumper, and other race modification equipment

  • Series 7 (1996–1998) included minor changes to the car. Updates included a simplified vacuum routing manifold and a 16-bit ECU allowing for increased boost which netted an extra 10 PS (7 kW). In Japan, the Series 7 RX-7 was marketed under the Mazda brand name. The Series 7 was also sold in Australia, New Zealand and the UK. Series 7 RX-7s were produced only in right-hand-drive configuration.
  • Series 8 (January 1999– August 2002) was the final series, and was only available in the Japanese market. More efficient turbochargers were installed, while improved intercooling and radiator cooling was made possible by a revised frontal area. The seats, steering wheel, and front and rear lights were all changed. The rear spoiler was modified and gained adjustability. The top-of-the-line "Type RS" came equipped with a Bilstein suspension and 17" wheels as standard equipment, and reduced weight to 1,280 kg (2,822 lb). Power was 280 PS (206 kW; 276 hp) with 313.8 N·m (231 ft·lbf) of torque as per the maximum Japanese limit. The very limited edition Type RZ version included all the features of the Type RS, but at a lighter weight (at 1270 kg). It also featured custom gun-metal colored BBS wheels and a custom red racing themed interior. Further upgrades included a new 16-bit ECU and ABS system upgrades. The improved ABS system worked by braking differently on each wheel, allowing the car better turning during braking. The effective result made for safer driving for the average buyer. Easily the most collectible of all the RX-7s was the last 1,500 run-out specials. Dubbed the "Spirit R", they combined all the "extra" features Mazda had used on previous limited-run specials plus new exclusive features. They still command amazing prices on the Japanese used car scene years later. Sticker prices when new were 3,998,000 yen for Type-A and B and 3,398,000 yen for Type-C. Mazda's press release said "The Type-A Spirit R model is the ultimate RX-7, boasting the most outstanding driving performance in its history."
- There are three kinds of "Spirit R": the "Type A", "Type B", and "Type C". The "Type A" has a 5-speed manual transmission, and is said to have the best performance of the three models. The "Type B" has a 2+2 seat configuration and also sports a 5-speed manual transmission. The "Type C" is also a 2+2, but has a 4-speed automatic transmission. Clarification of the build number breakdown for each type is sought as Mazda hasn't publicly published the production figures.

Mazda Rx 7. Mazda Rx7 Front View

 

The FD RX-7 was Motor Trend's Import\Domestic Car of the Year. When Playboy magazine first reviewed the FD RX-7 in 1993, they tested it in the same issue as the [then] new Dodge Viper. In that issue, Playboy declared the RX-7 to be the better of the two cars. It went on to win Playboy's Car of the Year for 1993. The FD RX-7 also made Car and Driver magazine's Ten Best list for 1993 through 1995, for every year in which it was sold state-side. June, 2007 Road&Track magazine proclaimed "The ace in Mazda's sleeve is the RX-7, a car once touted as the purest, most exhilarating sports car in the world.

The sequential twin turbocharged system was a very complex piece of engineering, developed with the aid of Hitachi and previously used on the domestic Cosmo series (JC Cosmo=90–95). The system was composed of two small turbochargers, one to provide torque at low RPM. The 2nd unit was on standby until the upper half of the rpm range during full throttle acceleration. The first turbocharger provided 10 psi (0.7 bar) of boost from 1800 rpm, and the 2nd turbocharger was activated at 4000 rpm and also provided 10 psi. The changeover process, between 3500 rpm and 4000 rpm, provided 8 psi (0.6 bar), was smooth, and provided linear acceleration and a wide torque curve throughout the entire rev range.

Handling in the FD was regarded as world-class, and it is still regarded as being one of the finest handling and best balanced cars of all time. The continued use of the front-midship engine and drivetrain layout, combined with an 50:50 front-rear weight distribution ratio and low center of gravity made the FD a very competent car at the limits.


Australia had a special high performance version of the RX-7 in 1995, dubbed the RX-7 SP. This model was developed as a homologated road-going version of the factory race cars used in the 12hr endurance races held at Bathurst, New South Wales, beginning in 1991 for the 1995 event held at Eastern Creek, Sydney, New South Wales. An initial run of 25 were made, and later an extra 10 were built by Mazda due to demand. The RX-7 SP produced 204 kW (274 hp) and 357 N·m (263 ft·lbf) of torque, compared to the 176 kW (236 hp) and 294 N·m (217 ft·lbf) of the standard version. Other changes included a race developed carbon fibre nose cone and rear spoiler, a carbon fibre 120 L fuel tank (as opposed to the 76 L tank in the standard car), a 4.3:1-ratio rear differential, 17 in diameter wheels, larger brake rotors and calipers. An improved intercooler, exhaust, and modified ECU were also included. Weight was reduced significantly with the aid of further carbon fibre usage including lightweight vented bonnet and Recaro seats to reduce weight to just 1218 kg (from 1310 kg). It was a serious road going race car that matched their rival Porsche 911 RS CS for the final year Mazda officially entered. The formula paid off when the RX-7 SP won the title, giving Mazda the winning 12hr trophy for a fourth straight year. The winning car also gained a podium finish at the international tarmac rally Targa Tasmania months later. A later special version, the Bathurst R, was released in 2001 to commemorate this, in Japan only.

In the United Kingdom, for 1992, customers were offered only one version of the FD which was based on a combination of the US touring and base model. For the following year, in a bid to speed up sales, Mazda reduced the price of the RX-7 to £25,000, down from £32,000 and refunded the difference to those who bought the car before that was announced. The FD continued to be imported to the UK until 1996. In 1998, for a car that had suffered from slow sales when it was officially sold, with as surge of interest following its appearances in videogames, notably Gran Turismo and the benefit of a newly introduced SVA scheme, which meant an influx of inexpensive Japanese imported cars, the FD would become so popular that there were more parallel and grey imported models brought into the country than Mazda UK had ever imported.